Pathophysiology of colon cancer and colon disease

Colon tumor is the second driving reason for passings coming about because of disease. Consistently, roughly 48,000 individuals will bite the dust in the U.S. from colon growth. A considerable lot of these passings would be anticipated with early location and treatment through routine colon tumor screening.

Colon Cancer Progresses through Stages

The phase of the colon growth decides the proper treatment and decides the patient’s relative 5-year survival rate which is the rate of colon malignancy patients who inhabit slightest 5 years subsequent to being analyzed. Colon growth advances in stages as takes after:

Organize 0: The sickness begins as a little non-carcinogenic development, called a polyp, in the colon.

Organize 1: The malignancy has begun to work its way through the primary layers of the colon – the mucosa and the sub mucosa.

Arrange 3: The malignancy has spread to at least one of the close-by lymph hubs.

Arrange 4: The malignancy has spread to different organs (regularly the liver or the lungs).

Screening for Colon Cancer

So as to recognize colon growth early, everybody, even people who are not at high hazard, that is, without any side effects and with no family history of colon disease, ought to be screened. Tumor experts propose that screening for such people begin at age 50 and comprise of tests that distinguish colon disease in the body:

Phase of Colon Cancer Determines Treatments and Relative 5-Year Survival Rates

At the point when the polyp turns into a tumor and achieves Stage 1 or Stage 2, the tumor and a segment of the colon on both sides is surgical expelled. The relative 5-year survival rate is more than 90% for Stage 1 and 73% for Stage 2.

In the event that the infection advances to a Stage 3, a colon resection is no more drawn out adequate and the patient additionally needs to experience chemotherapy. The relative 5-year survival rate drops to 53%, contingent upon such variables as the quantity of lymph hubs that contain growth.

When the colon growth achieves Stage 4, treatment may require the utilization of chemotherapy and different medications and surgery on various organs. As the relative 5-year survival rates show, the time span in which colon malignancy is identified and treated has an emotional effect. In the event that identified and treated early, the individual has a magnificent possibility of surviving the infection. As recognition and treatment is deferred, the chances begin betraying the individual so that when the colon tumor advances to Stage 3, the rate is even. What’s more, the chances drop abruptly when the colon malignancy achieves Stage 4.

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Symptoms of colon cancer and sign of colon cancer

Understanding what the colon is and what its capacities are will help us better distinguish colon tumor signs. The colon is a significant segment of a human’s digestive framework. Once in a while colon disease is otherwise called colorectal malignancy or huge gut growth. Colon rectal malignancy implies having destructive cells developing in the colon, reference section or rectum. At whatever point disease is included, nothing is ever basic. Colon rectal malignancy signs and indications are by and large partitioned into limited or territorial growth (which implies the disease spread is limited to only a restricted territory), protected (which implies it is influencing the entire body) and the most genuine kind metastatic (which implies the tumor has really spread to different parts or different organs in the body and this would ordinarily suggest it is presently in the circulation system). Confined growth has a much higher achievement rate in reacting great to forceful treatment which implies the patient will stand a decent possibility of beating the disease.

Colon rectal malignancy signs are frequently mixed up for different conditions, for example, disturbance entrail disorders, Crohn’s Disease. Noteworthy colon rectal tumor signs can incorporate a sudden change in your entrail propensities. In the event that you are not encountering hemorrhoids or are not experiencing Crohn’s malady but then you have rectal draining or notice blood in your stool, again this could be indications of colon rectal growth.

Rundown: Signs of Colon Cancer

No one knows today how really colon growth happens neither the vast majority of them know about the notice signs. Tumor is one confused ailment which, if spotted early can be dealt with to spare life. Talking as far as colon disease, it is trusted that colon malignancy happens due to low fiber abstain from food. Besides, the individuals who enjoy the high fat eating routine and high calories are under the danger of building up this ailment. Discussing malignancy cautioning signs, the most noticeable side effect is butt-centric dying. Aside from dying, hardness in the guts and torment in the lower guts territory is the most well-known cautioning signs. There manifestations may coordinate with numerous different infections too, be that as it may, it is vital not to trifle with those indications or abstain from demonstrating it to a specialist who might be a master for growth and charges more than what looseness of the bowels authority charge. So don’t attempt to check on the cash viewpoints and demonstrate the side effects to the genuine authority.

Colon Cancer Survival Rates

Colon cancer survival rates indicate the chances a cancer patient has of surviving the disease for a specified length of time. The rates are by no means a definite indicator of what will happen to a patient; they can at best predict a patient’s chances of what might happen to him, if a type of treatment plan is opted for, based on what has happened to other patients in similar circumstances. They serve as a guide to a patient and his family to know what they can expect if they choose a particular type of treatment or if they should consider one at all rather than just opt for pain relievers and sedation.

Colon cancer is a disease of the lower part of the digestive system affecting the colon, rectum and appendix. It is also called colorectal or large bowel cancer. It is the 2nd leading cause of cancer related deaths in the Western World.

Colon cancer when detected in the early stages is one of the most curable of cancers, by as much as 90%. Happily, the colon cancer survival rates have been steadily improving over the past 20 years, because of improved screening that makes treatment possible at the early curable stages. There are over 1 million survivors of the disease in the US today.

As with most cancers, prognosis is determined by the stage at which the disease is diagnosed, the later the stage at which the disease is diagnosed, the lower the survival rate. The Journal of the National Cancer Institute gives these overall survival rates for colon cancer in the US: 93% at stage 1, 85% at stage 2A, 72% at stage 2B, 83% at stage 3A, 64% at stage 3B, 44% at stage 3C and 8% at stage 4.

Colon cancer survival rates also vary depending on where the tumor is located. If the cancerous growth is located in the ascending colon, the 5 year survival rate is 63%, for the transverse colon it is 59% and for the descending colon it is 66%.

Treatment is mainly surgical in which the cancerous section of the bowel is removed and the two open ends are joined. If they can’t be joined, a colostomy bag is necessary, in which case the bowel is brought outside the abdominal wall for the bag. Surgery is followed by chemotherapy and radiotherapy which improves the survival rate by a further 5-6%.

Overall colon cancer affects men and women of all races equally however, women are more prone to developing colon cancer and men rectal cancer. Being over the age of 50 presents an increased risk factor with the risk for developing the disease increasing with each passing decade. Over 75% of cases are diagnosed in people over the age of 50 however; younger people too are at risk and cannot afford to ignore screening. Smoking, consumption of alcohol, being overweight and living sedentary lifestyles is risk factors as are having a family history of the disease and diabetes.

Since it has been proved that colon cancer survival rates have increased due to increased and improved screening techniques, it is highly recommended that the survival rates be further improved with people over the age of 40 having regular colonoscopies and rectal exams to increase the chances of early detection and treatment.

Learning More About Rectal Cancer

The rectum is the lower part of the digestive organ where the waste materials are disposed of through the butt. Rectal growth happens when tumor shapes in the last a few inches of the digestive organ. Roughly 150,000 instances of colorectal malignancy are analyzed every year and out of those, around 40,000 are rectal disease cases.

Adenocarcinoma is the most widely recognized sort of rectal malignancy and it influences the mucosal layer of the rectum. The rectal divider is included a few distinct layers and simply like colon disease , the visualization and treatment alternatives depend essentially on how profound the tumor has infiltrated into the mass of the colon/rectum. The tumor can contaminate lymph hubs and other encompassing tissues and it can likewise spread to different parts of the body through the lymphatic framework.

Hazard Factors

Much the same as with some other kind of malignancy , the reason for rectal disease is obscure; however there are a few danger considers that have been connected with this type of growth. The danger elements incorporate yet are not constrained to:

• Age

• Smoking

• Family history of colon/rectal tumor

• High fat eating regimen or an eating regimen generally from creature sources

• Family history or individual history of polyps or colorectal tumor

Family history is a noteworthy danger component for rectal growth . On the off chance that a guardian or kin has been determined to have rectal tumor , then it is prescribed that the unaffected individual ought to start yearly exams 10 years before achieving the age the relative was when analyzed or at 50 years old, whichever start things out.


One of the best anticipation gets ready for rectal tumor is to get a yearly exam of the colon and rectum. You will most likely be unable to keep the growth from assaulting your body, yet you will have the capacity to get the disease in the soonest shapes, which will permit a doctor to treat and perhaps cure the malignancy without repeat. Treatment works best on prior phases of tumor with regards to this sort of disease, as it does with some other kind of growth.

Side effects

This sort of disease can create detectable indications and it is conceivable that one may not encounter any side effects, giving the significance of a normal exam all the more importance. This sort of malignancy can deliver numerous manifestations that could be not kidding and cause the patient to look for medicinal consideration promptly. Side effects of this sort of tumor include:

• Bleeding. Blood blended in with the stool or seeping from the rectum is an indication that one ought to look for medicinal consideration promptly.

• Obstruction. The harmful tumor situated inside the rectum can turn out to be large to the point that it can obstruct the rectum, making the patient not able to void fecal material. This prompts serious stoppage, torment, and/or cramping. The blockage could likewise permit just a little measure of matter to be ousted from the body. Pencil slight solid discharges can be another indication of a blockage.

• Weight misfortune

Look for therapeutic consideration on the off chance that you encounter any of the indications. Prompt therapeutic consideration ought to be looked for on the off chance that you encounter draining or block of the rectum.

Colon Cancer Symptoms – How to Know If You Have Colorectal Cancer

Colon cancer is a serious disease characterized by abnormal cell growth in the colon, which creates a cancerous tumor. This kind of illness ranks third in the list of the most common forms of cancer and are most often prevalent in people over 50 years old, but can occur in patients of any age.

Cancers of the colon, or of the rectum, are highly treatable if they are diagnosed in the early stages of the disease. However, many people often are not diagnosed in time as early symptoms are not always recognized and, when they are, people are somewhat hesitant to discuss the details of their symptoms with a doctor.

The symptoms include:

  1. Abdominal pain, bloating, or discomfort
  2. Bloody stool
  3. Long, thin stool (often described as pencil-like)
  4. Unintended weight loss
  5. Loss of appetite
  6. Changes in normal bowel habits (rectal bleeding, diarrhea, constipation, or feeling an inability to completely empty the bowel).

Each year nearly 150,000 new cases of this disease are reported. There is no identifiable cause for it, but the following are some of the factors that may increase the risk of its development:

  • Gender (Both men and women are equally prone to developing the malady. However, men tend to develop the rectal version at slightly higher rates, while women are more prone to the colon variety)
  • Age (The sickness can be developed at any age, but the chances are increased in people over the age of 50 years old.)
  • Diabetes
  • Obesity
  • Cigarette smoking
  • Alcohol consumption
  • Poor diet
  • Family history
  • Personal history.

People with a family history of colorectal cancer are slightly more prone to developing it. If more than one family member has been diagnosed with the problem, the risk is even higher. Also, diets high in calories and fat, and low in fiber add to an increased risk of developing the disorder. Anyone over the age of 50 should undergo regular screening for the disorder, but anyone in any of the above risk groups should begin earlier.

Screening normally consists of an annual rectal exam, including stool samples. Some exams may require a scope to be inserted into the rectum in order to view the entire bowel. If there is cause for concern or further examination of the colon’s tissue, a biopsy may be ordered for a closer analysis. If cancer is discovered, other tests, such as an ultrasound, CT scan or X-ray would be done in order to determine whether it has spread to other areas. Of particular concern is the liver as it is one of the more likely places that this dangerous disease spreads to.

Because the risk can be reduced by a high fiber diet, proper weight management (including exercise) and by not smoking, it is highly recommended that people opt for healthier lifestyles and decrease their chances of developing this type of life threatening ailment, and others, as much as possible.

Anyone who has experienced some of the previously mentioned symtoms, or who are in one of the risks groups for the disease, is advised to seek screening tests as early as possible since colorectal cancer responds very well to treatment in the earliest stages.

What Is Colon Cancer?

Colon cancer is cancer of the large intestine (colon), the lower part of your digestive system. About 112,000 people are diagnosed with this type of cancer annually in the United States of America. This data was released by the American Cancer Society. Most new cases of colon cancer begin with small cell clumps. They are called Adenomatous Polyps. Over time some of these clumps develop into dangerous cancer cells. In general, cancer occurs when healthy body cells turn into “enemies” inside your own body. A patient will not see any early symptoms before the actual cancer cells have developed. One reason why early pre-screening examinations provide the best protection from colon cancer to develop into the dangerous illness it can be. Common signs of colon cancer include (but are not limited to) changes in bowel habits, blood in a patients stool, recurring cramping, gas, bloating or even abdominal pain. Blood in your stool may be an early sign of cancer, but it can also indicate other conditions like hemorrhoids or minor tears in your anal area. Recurring blood found in your stool should trigger a visit to your primary care physician as a precaution (rather safe than sorry).

Risk factors that might may increase your risk of becoming sick with colon cancer. Age is a large risk factor. The typical patient is 50 years or older in age. A family history of cancer, especially colon cancer could indicate that you have a higher risk of becoming sick. Long-standing inflammatory diseases of the colon can put you at higher risk of colon cancer. Colon cancer may be associated with a bad diet that is low in fiber and very high in fat and calories (Junk Food). Scientists have not fully agreed on this last item, but in general a diet that contains a lot of Junk Food (Burgers, Fries, Fried Food in general, etc.) is high in bad fats which has already shown to affect a patient’s health in a very negative way. If you are more of couch potato and less the active guy or gal, you might have a higher risk of getting colon cancer. Diabetics also face a possible higher risk of colon cancer. This list can be expanded easily by adding obesity, large alcohol consumption and smoking. Just keep in mind that these are just pieces that can increase the risk of getting colon cancer. It does not mean that smoking (just to mention an example) will cause colon cancer. You would probably die of lung cancer first.

If you notice any easy to spot symptoms of colon cancer, such as blood in your stool or a persistent, recurring change in your bowel habits, visit your primary care physician as soon as possible and talk about the possibility of colon cancer. Also consider pre-screening as an option if colon cancer has a family history.

Conclusion: Colon cancer is no fun to have. It is a real risk and any suspicion of experiencing colon cancer should be treated accordingly by visiting your doctor. A healthy lifestyle with regular exercise will help not only to reduce the risk of cancer, but also to prevent many other diseases. Your doctor and your health insurance can help you to develop a diet that is not only healthy, but tastes good as well.

Are You At Risk With Colorectal Cancer?

Colorectal growth, likewise called huge gut disease, is the term used to depict harmful tumors found in the colon and rectum.

In the United States, around 160,000 new instances of colorectal tumor are analyzed every year. It is the third most generally analyzed growth and the second driving reason for disease demise in the United States.

The normal period of analysis of disease in patients with this disorder is 44 years of age, when contrasted with 64 years of age in individuals without the disorder. 66% of these tumors happen in the proximal colon.

In colon malignancy patients, pathologists can quantify microsatellite shakiness in colon tumor examples, which is a surrogate marker for DNA confuse repair quality brokenness.

To know whether you are at danger to colorectal tumor, you should realize what are the causes, hazard variables and manifestations connected with this malignancy.

Be that as it may, I have known there is no single reason for colon disease. Almost all colon malignancies start as amiable polyps, which gradually form into tumor.

In any case, you have a higher danger for colon malignancy on the off chance that you have: Colorectal polyps Cancer somewhere else in the body, a family history of colon growth, ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s infection, individual history of bosom disease.

Certain hereditary disorders additionally build the danger of creating colon malignancy. What you eat may assume a part in your danger of colon growth.

Colon malignancy might be connected with a high-fat, low-fiber eating routine and red meat. Colon and rectum malignancy regularly causes no side effects, particularly at first.


The accompanying manifestations, be that as it may, may show colon growth: Diarrhea, clogging, or other change in inside propensities, blood in the stool, unexplained frailty, stomach torment and delicacy in the lower midriff. It might likewise incorporate intestinal check, weight reduction with no known reason, limited stools.


With appropriate screening, colon tumor can be identified BEFORE the advancement of indications, when it is generally treatable.

A rectal exam may uncover a mass in patients with rectal growth , yet not colon malignancy. Imaging tests to analyze colorectal malignancy include: Colonoscopy and Sigmoidoscopy.

In the event that your specialist discovers that you do have colorectal disease, extra tests will be done to check whether the tumor has spread.


¨ Stage 0: Very early disease on the deepest layer of the digestive tract Stage I: Cancer is in the inward layers of the colon

¨ Stage II: Cancer has spread through the muscle mass of the colon

¨ Stage III: Cancer has spread to the lymph hubs

¨ Stage IV: Cancer that has spread to different organs.

Treatment depends mostly on the phase of the growth. When all is said in done, medications may include: Chemotherapy prescriptions to execute growth cells; Surgery to evacuate disease cells; Radiation treatment to demolish destructive tissue.

Stage 0 colon disease might be dealt with by evacuating the tumor cells, regularly amid a colonoscopy; Stage II to stage IV colon growth ought to get chemotherapy after surgery and this may incorporate removing the malignancy, smoldering it (removal), or solidifying it (cryotherapy); Stages I, II, and III malignancy are considered conceivably reparable however as a rule, stage IV tumor is not treatable.


Some proof recommends that low-fat and high-fiber weight control plans may lessen your danger of colon malignancy. Preventive Services Task Force prescribes against taking ibuprofen or other calming meds to avert colon growth in the event that you have a normal danger of the malady – regardless of the possibility that somebody in your family has had the condition.

Albeit low-measurement headache medicine may lessen your danger of different conditions, for example, coronary illness, it doesn’t bring down the rate of colon tumor.

What is Colon Cancer?

Colon cancer is cancer that develops in the colon or the rectum. The colon and rectum are parts of the digestive system, which is also called the gastrointestinal, or GI, system. The digestive system processes food for energy and rids the body of solid waste (fecal matter or stool).

After food is chewed and swallowed, it travels through the esophagus to the stomach. There it is partially broken down and sent to the small intestine where digestion continues and most of the nutrients are absorbed. The word “small” refers to the diameter of the small intestine, which is smaller than that of the large intestine. The small intestine is actually the longest part of the digestive system – about 20 feet long. Cancer almost never arises in the small intestine.

The small intestine joins the large intestine in the lower right abdomen. The first and longest part of the large intestine is the colon, a muscular tube about 5 feet long. Water and mineral nutrients are absorbed from the food matter in the colon. Waste (feces) left from this process passes into the rectum, the final 6 inches of the large intestine, and is then expelled. (The small and large intestine are sometimes called the small and large bowel).

The colon has 4 sections:

The first section is called the ascending colon. It begins where the small intestine attaches to the colon and extends upward on the right side of a person’s abdomen.

The second section is called the transverse colon, since it crosses the body from the right to the left side.

The third section, the descending colon, continues downward on the left side.

The fourth section is known as the sigmoid colon because of its S-shape. The sigmoid colon joins the rectum, which in turn joins the anus.

Colorectal cancer usually develops slowly over a period of many years. Before a true cancer develops, it usually begins as a noncancerous polyp which may eventually change into cancer. A polyp is a growth of tissue that develops on the lining of the colon or rectum. Certain kinds of polyps, called adenomatous polyps or adenomas, are most likely to become cancers.

More than 95% of colorectal cancers are adenocarci-nomas, which evolve from glandular tissue. For approximately 85% of colon and rectum cancers, the tumor arises from an adenomatous polyp that is visible through a scope or on an x-ray.

Once cancer forms in the large intestine, it eventually can begin to grow through the lining and into the wall of the colon or rectum. Cancers that have invaded the wall can grow into blood vessels or lymph vessels, which are thin channels that carry away cellular waste and fluid. Cancer cells first drain into nearby lymph nodes, which are bean-shaped structures that help fight against infections. The process through which cancer cells travel to distant parts of the body through blood or lymphatic vessels is called metastasis.

The extent to which a colorectal cancer has spread is described as its stage. Cancers that have not yet begun to invade the wall of the colon or rectum are called carcinomas in situ, and are not counted in cancer statistics. More than one system is used for the clinical staging of cancer. In this document, we will describe colorectal cancer stages as:

Local: Cancers that have grown into the wall of the colon and rectum, but have not extended through the wall to invade nearby tissues

Regional: Cancers that have spread through the wall of the colon or rectum and have invaded nearby tissue, or that have spread to nearby lymph nodes

Distant: Cancers that have spread to other parts of the body, such as the liver and lung.

Screening For Colo-Rectal Cancer

There are numerous purposes behind not having screening of colon and rectal growth . There are more critical things to do, and things to rapidly escape the way. There are morning gatherings to make, after-work gatherings that barbecue us and the in-laws are going to from the United Kingdom in the weekend. There are more content things to do: night out with the young men, setting off to the rec center, running into the nightfall, this tremendously discussed motion picture, Robbie Williams’ World Tour, training your child’s b-ball, the rundown goes on. There is stand out explanation behind screening of colon and rectal growth : to empower you to do every one of these things above any longer. We are “fortunate” that Colon and rectal tumor requires significant investment to create. On the normal, it assumes control five to years for somebody to go from having an ordinary colonoscopy, to having little polyps on colonoscopy lastly to having colon or rectal growth . It helps me to remember the psychopathic executioner who doesn’t murder immediately. He is quick to play “Catch me in the event that you can” and leaves follows all around.

In the event that an infection is connected with a low occurrence or unimportant effect on wellbeing, we won’t try to anticipate or control it. Colon growth does not fall into this classification. The age-balanced occurrence rate was 51.6 for every 100,000 men and ladies for each year. It is evaluated that 153,760 men and ladies (79,130 men and 74,630 ladies) will be determined to have and 52,180 men and ladies will kick the bucket of growth of the colon and rectum in 2007. The issue is surely enormous and sufficiently awful for us to take care of.

“What is screening?”

Screening is searching for tumor before a man has any manifestations. This can discover malignancy at an early stage. At the point when unusual tissue or growth is discovered early, it might be less demanding to treat. When manifestations show up, growth may have started to spread. Researchers are attempting to better comprehend which individuals will probably get certain sorts of growth. They additionally think about the things we do and the things around us to check whether they cause disease. This data helps specialists prescribe who ought to be screened for malignancy, which screening tests ought to be utilized, and how frequently the tests ought to be done.It is essential to recollect that your specialist does not as a matter of course think you have tumor in the event that he or she proposes a screening test. Screening tests are given when you have no disease side effects. Screening tests might be rehashed on a general basis.If a screening test result is strange, you may need more tests done to see whether you have growth. These are called demonstrative tests.” ( data from National Cancer Institute of USA)

Screening just bodes well on the off chance that it makes the result diverse. In colon and rectal tumor , the distinction is momentous. Carcinoma-in-situ (early Cancers) are 99.9% cured. Early Cancers (stage one) are 90% cured. The cure rate falls as one advances up the stage. Extremely propelled diseases (stage four) are cured under 5% of the time, despite the fact that essentially delayed survival can be accomplished. Screening will build the rate of early stages in the analyzed growth cases and prompt fundamentally enhanced general survival. That interprets into more imperative things complete, more fun things complete, all the more sharing of lives, by us.

Rectal Cancer

The colon is a part of the digestive tract that connects the stomach and small intestine to the anus. The terminal portion of this colon is called the rectum, spanning approximately 12cm in length. About 20% of all cancers that occur in the colon arise in this rectum.

Bleeding is the most common symptom associated with rectal cancer, occurring in up to 60% of patients. Other frequent symptoms include change in bowel habit, and abdominal pain.

The diagnosis of rectal cancer usually involves colonoscopy, an examination of the colon using an instrument called colonoscope that enables an evaluation of the entire inner lining of the colon including the rectum. Once the diagnosis of cancer is made, the extent of the disease is often determined using a radiologic examination called CT scan. It allows an initial assessment of the extent of spread of cancer. In addition, an endoscopic ultrasound may be helpful in assessing the local spread of cancer. At the same time, routine blood tests including complete blood count (CBC), liver function tests, and a tumor marker called CEA are usually obtained during the initial evaluation.

There are 4 stages of rectal cancer. Rectal cancer is defined as Stage 1, if the cancer tissue is confined to the lining of the rectum. In Stage 2 cancer, the cancer tissue has invaded the layers of rectal wall, and may have invaded nearby organs such as bladder or uterus. In Stage 3 rectal cancer, the cancer tissue has spread to nearby lymph nodes, tiny bean shaped glands of lymphatic system. In Stage 4 cancer, the cancer has spread to other organs such as liver or lung.

The staging of rectal cancer is important since the prognosis of affected individual is highly dependent on the staging of cancer. For example, patients diagnosed with Stage 1 rectal cancer have overall 5-year survival rate of 74%. On the other hand, those diagnosed with stage 4 cancer can only expect 6% survival rate at 5 year.

The treatment of rectal cancer often involves combination of surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. Because of the complex anatomy of anal sphincter, there are various surgical techniques that may be utilized to preserve the anal sphincteric function. In addition, radiation therapy and chemotherapy are often administered to shrink the tumor, prior to performing the surgery.

For cancer that is localized and has not spread, the excision surgery is the treatment of choice. More advanced cancer usually requires chemo-radiation therapy, followed by surgery. The type of surgery performed will be dependent on the exact location, size, and extent of cancer with the intent of preserving anal sphincteric, if at all possible. Recently, some have also benefited from additional treatment with a new class of cancer therapy such as Vectibix, Avastin, and Erbitux.